Also known as CDV, Canine Distemper is a highly contagious viral illness that can be debilitating and even fatal. It not only affects dogs, but can also be seen in certain species of wildlife, including foxes, skunks, and wolves. Puppies and non-immunized dogs are most commonly affected, but pets on immune-suppressing medications may also be vulnerable.
CDV is resistant to the majority of cleaning products, and household bleach is the only known way to eradicate it.
The CDV virus is mainly transmitted through direct contact with an infected animal via bodily fluids such as saliva from coughs or sneezes which is why inhalation is the most common way it enters a new dog's system. CDV attacks the respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract, and central nervous system.
The virus does not live long once outside the body, so indirect contact is extremely rare.
As with most contagious diseases, animal shelters and kennels are much more likely to be contaminated.
The primary symptoms of CDV include, but are not limited to:
Watery or pus-like discharge from the eyes
Once the virus reaches the central nervous system (CNS), it can cause twitching, seizures, and partial or total paralysis. This causes irreparable damage to a dog’s nervous system, often resulting in death.
Diagnosing CDV can be tricky, as many of the symptoms that present themselves can be indicative of a wide range of illnesses. Therefore, it is necessary to undertake a combination of tests in order to give an accurate diagnosis. These tests can include but are not limited to:
Imaging studies including x-rays and ultrasounds
You will also be asked to provide a comprehensive history of the health of your pet as well as the progression of any symptoms that they have displayed. You may also be asked to provide samples of other bodily fluids.
There is no cure for CDV itself, but treatment revolves around easing any symptoms and ensuring that further problems like bacterial infections do not take hold. This is usually done in a hospital environment and may involve intravenous fluid therapy, anti-sickness medications, antibiotics, anti-convulsion medications, and glucocorticoid therapy.
Vaccinations against CDV are also effective in killing the virus if administered within 4 days of exposure to the virus.
Canine distemper is estimated to be fatal in around 50% of cases affecting adult dogs and around 80% of cases affecting puppies. When fatalities occur, it is usually due to damage to the central nervous system, resulting in complications.
As with most illnesses, prevention is almost certainly better than cure. Vaccinations against CDV can be done as early as 8 weeks old and puppies should be vaccinated at 8, 12 and 16 weeks, after which they should be kept from socializing with other animals for another 2 weeks. After 16 weeks of age, they should be sufficiently vaccinated to have contact with other animals.
If you are re-homing an older dog, be sure to check with the shelter or current owner about when he/she last had a CDV vaccination. If you are in any doubt at all, then consult with your veterinarian to ensure that your pet receives the correct vaccination program for their requirements.
Dogs that are suspected of having CDV should be isolated from any other dogs within the household and you should ensure that your other dogs are adequately vaccinated against the disease. Your pet will need a warm, safe place to recover, with food and water located nearby. Be sure to regularly clean all of your dog's supplies with a non-toxic cleaner.
Regular CDV vaccinations should help prevent further occurrences.